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Chapter 1. Operating techniques

Table of Contents

1.1. Rejected Takeoff
1.2. Failures during takeoff when above V1
1.3. EOSID

1.1. Rejected Takeoff

The decision to reject rests solely with CM1. This decision is communicated with the words “Stop” or “Go”. “Stop” implies that CM1 is taking control of the aircraft. Below 100kt the RTO is relatively risk free and a decision to stop should be made for any ECAM and most other problems. Above 100kt the RTO may be hazardous and stopping should only be considered for loss of engine thrust, any fire warning, any uninhibited ECAM[1] or anything which indicates the aircraft will be unsafe or unable to fly.

If a stop is required, CM1 calls “Stop” while simultaneously bringing the thrust levers to idle, then to max reverse. If the stop was commenced below 72kt the ground spoilers will not automatically deploy and the autobrake will therefore not engage. Monitor automatic braking, and if there is any doubt, apply manual braking as required. If normal braking fails, announce “Loss of braking” and proceed with the loss of braking memory items (see Section 8.1, “Loss of braking (memory item)). If the reason for the stop was an engine fire on the upwind side, consider turning the aircraft to keep the fire away from the fuselage. If there is any chance of requiring evacuation, bring the aircraft to a complete halt, stow the reversers, apply the parking brake, and order “Attention, crew at stations” on the PA. If evacuation will definitely not be required, once the aircraft’s safety is assured the RTO can be discontinued and the runway cleared. In this case make a PA of “Cabin crew, normal operations”.

During this initial phase, CM2 confirms reverse (“Reverse green”), confirms deceleration (“Decel”), cancels any audio warnings, informs ATC and announces “70 knots” when appropriate. CM2 then locates the emergency evacuation checklist.

Once the aircraft has stopped, CM1 takes the radios and asks CM2 to carry out any required ECAM actions. Whilst the ECAM actions are being completed, CM1 will build up a decision as to whether to evacuate. If an evacuation is required see Section 2.7, “Evacuation”. Otherwise order “Cabin crew, normal operations”.

If the aircraft has come to a complete halt using autobrake MAX, the brakes can be released by disarming the spoilers.

If, following an RTO, a new takeoff is to be attempted, reset both FDs, set the FCU, then restart SOPs from the After Start checklist. Carefully consider brake temperatures; temperature indications continue to climb for some time after a significant braking event.


1.2. Failures during takeoff when above V1

If an engine has lost thrust, apply rudder conventionally. At Vr rotate towards an initial pitch target of 12½° at a slightly reduced rate, then target speed V2 to V2+15kt. Bank angle should be limited to 15° when more than 3kt below manoeuvring speed for the current configuration[2].

When the ground to flight mode transition is complete[3], select TOGA (FLX may be used but this tends to allow speed to decay unless pitch is reduced), adjust and trim rudder to maintain β target and request “pull heading”. If the EOSID follows the track of the cleared SID, NAV may be used, but this is very rare with easyJet EOSIDs. Engage the autopilot once gear is up and rudder is trimmed.

Whilst below 400ft, the only failure related actions should be:

  • If applicable, PM should state the title of the first displayed ECAM procedure, but should delay confirmation.[4]

  • Cancellation of master warning or master caution when both pilots confirm they are aware of it.

  • Heightened awareness of the possibility of missing essential normal actions, such as calling rotate or raising the gear due to the distraction of the failure.

Once above 400ft with safe flight path assured, decide on an initial strategy. In general, where a loss of thrust has occurred or is anticipated, the strategy will be to fly the EOSID with a level acceleration segment (see Section 1.3, “EOSID”). Otherwise, it will be to remain on the normal SID and fly a normal climb profile. Any deviation from the cleared SID will require ATC to be informed as a priority, usually as part of a PAN or MAYDAY message. In rare cases where the cleared SID requires a very early turn it may be necessary to determine and action a strategy when below 400ft. If this is the case, it must be thoroughly briefed.

Once the flight path strategy has been agreed and actioned, the failure can be triaged, diagnosed and contained. Once the diagnosis is agreed, PF will take the radios and request PNF to carry out the containment actions. The standard phraseology is “My Radios, ECAM actions”. PF taking the radios is also a good trigger to consider a Mayday and an “Attention crew at stations”.

When applying ECAM procedures, PF is responsible for moving the thrust levers once confirmed by PNF. PNF is responsible for everything else, but movement of engine master switches, IR selectors and any guarded switch must be confirmed with PF.

PNF indicates high priority tasks are completed with the phrase “Engine is secure.” This call is not official SOP (i.e. it is not mentioned in any manual), but has evolved to be standard in the sim since it is PF’s trigger to interrupt ECAM and accelerate. High priority tasks are defined as:

  • For engine failure, the master switch of the affected engine has been turned off.

  • For engine fire, one squib has been fired and the fire warning has extinguished or both squibs have been fired.


1.3. EOSID

Before the divergence point (the last common point between the SID and the EOSID), if the aircraft detects a loss of thrust the EOSID will be displayed as a temporary flight plan. In this case the temporary flight plan can be inserted and NAV mode used. Otherwise it will be necessary to pull heading and manually follow either the yellow line or bring up a pre-prepared secondary flight plan and follow the white line.

If beyond the divergence point, pull heading and make an immediate turn the shortest way onto the EOSID. Airbus specifically recommends against this in FCOM.AS.22_20.60.40, but easyJet states it as policy in EOMB 4.4.4.

Electing to fly the EOSID implies a level acceleration segment:

  • Initially fly a TOGA climb at the higher of V2 or current speed, up to a limit of V2+15kt. If a FLEX takeoff was carried out, a FLEX climb is permissible. This climb is continued until all high priority tasks are complete (see Section 1.2, “Failures during takeoff when above V1”) and the aircraft is above single engine acceleration altitude (usually 1000ft QFE, but may be higher if so specified by the take-off performance calculation). If the FMGS has detected the engine out condition, the automatic mode change from SRS to CLB will be inhibited; if not, intervention with selected modes will be required to prevent untimely acceleration.

  • The next segment is a TOGA level acceleration and clean up, either to Conf 1 and S speed if an immediate VMC return is desired or to Conf 0 and green dot. Again FLEX may be used if a FLEX takeoff was carried out. Level acceleration is usually achieved by pushing V/S; if the FMGS has detected the engine out condition, all preselected speeds entered in the MCDU will have been deleted, so the managed target speed should automatically move to 250kt. The phrases “Stop ECAM” and “Continue ECAM” can be used to interrupt ECAM procedures in order to initiate this segment.

  • The final segment is a MCT climb segment to MSA, either at S speed if in Conf 1 or at green dot speed if in Conf 0. This is usually achieved in open climb; if the FMGS has detected the engine out condition, the managed target speed becomes dependent on flight phase, and in this case should automatically select green dot.

TOGA may be used for a maximum of 10 minutes.

If an EOSID is annotated as “STD”, then acceleration to green dot should be completed prior to commencing the first turn. If “NON-STD”, the turn takes priority.

[EOMB 4.4.4, FCOM DSC.22_20.60.40]

[1] A change was introduced in Feb 2018 whereby five amber ECAM cautions requiring a high speed stop are specifically listed. An exhaustive search of amber ECAM cautions that are not inhibited between 80kt and lift off revealed only two cautions in addition to this list: ENG 1(2) THR LEVER DISAGREE if the FADEC automatically selects idle thrust and FWS FWC 1+2 FAULT. The first of these should theoretically never happen due to FADEC logic. The second generates a message on the EWD but no master caution, since it is the computers that generate master cautions that have failed. You could therefore modify this rule to: stop for any ECAM warning or caution except the caution-like FWS FWC 1+2 FAULT.

[2] This is a conservative rule of thumb. If the FMGC has correctly identified an engine out condition, the FD/AP will automatically limit bank angle according to a less conservative algorithm. [FCOM SYS.]

[3] Introducing TOGA during the ground to flight mode transition (commences as the pitch increases through 8°, complete after 5 seconds) results in a pitch up moment at a time where the effect of stick pitch control is not wholly predictable: the stick will need to be moved forward of neutral to counteract the introduced pitch moment and then returned to neutral as flight mode blends in. A slight pause before selecting TOGA results in much more normal and predictable handling.

[4] The Feb 2018 update to EOM-B removed the “engine failure” and “engine fire” calls, but leaves the timing of the reading of the ECAM title ambiguous. The advice given here is one interpretation. Since these calls were good for situational awareness, replacing them with a bald statement of the first ECAM procedure title seems sensible.